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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2017 4:52 pm 
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A rare parakoopa silk from World 5.


Did the princess ever make lotsa spaghetti?

 
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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2017 6:52 pm 
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No.

Does Luigi?

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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2017 7:06 pm 
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He can't cook.

Can Mario cook?

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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2017 9:29 pm 
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I don't know, can he?


Can Mario "Mix and Match" in "Tetris"?

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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 4:09 pm 
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Can Luigi?

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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 5:04 pm 
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Yes, because he's Luigi.

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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 6:30 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Wed Apr 19, 2017 8:43 pm 
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Yes, otherwise he would have married the princess before Bowser did. ;)

What is a Koopa??

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Koopas represent a consistent group of turtle-like creatures. There are many different types of Koopas, the best-known of which are the Koopa Troopas.

Most Koopas seem to operate in a hierarchy-based grouping system. Bowser is the leader of the Koopa Troop, which has invaded Mushroom Kingdom many times and has control over most of the Koopas in the Mario series. Many of these same Koopas are members of the Koopa Troop and have different tasks in the organization based on the abilities of their particular class. For example, Koopa Troopas tend to be assigned as basic foot soldiers alongside Goombas due to their lack of special abilities, while Magikoopas are often given advisory roles due to their magical abilities and gift of foresight.

However, not all Koopas are allied with Bowser. Some Koopas, such as the Koopa Troopas of Koopa Village, live peacefully inside the borders of the Mushroom Kingdom, while others, such as Koopa the Quick in Super Mario 64, simply hold no allegiance and operate independently.

Contents [hide]
1 Species
1.1 Boom Boom
1.2 Bowser's species
1.3 Buzzy Beetle
1.4 Chargin' Chuck
1.5 Electro-Koopa
1.6 Hammer Bro
1.7 Koopa Troopa
1.8 Koopeleon
1.9 Lakitu
1.10 Magikoopa
1.11 Mechakoopa
1.12 Rocky Wrench
1.13 Snooze-A-Koopa
1.14 Spike
1.15 Spiny
2 Names in other languages
3 References
Species[edit]

Boom Boom[edit]

Boom Boom in Super Mario 3D Land
Main article: Boom Boom (species)
Boom Booms are a Koopa species similar to Bowser's. Booms Booms are very large and most have spikes on the back of their shells. Their most notable traits are their huge arms, which they use to attack by flailing them. Members of this species include Boom Boom and a female Boom Boom named Pom Pom. They appear in boss battles in games like Super Mario Bros. 3, Super Mario 3D Land, New Super Mario Bros. U, New Super Luigi U and Super Mario 3D World.

Bowser's species[edit]
Bowser - Mario Party 10.png
Main article: Bowser
Not much is known about the species of Koopa to which Bowser belongs. The only members appear to be Blue Bowser, Bowser, Bowser Jr., the Koopalings, and the Koopa Kids. The unique feature of this species is that the belly is covered by peculiar plates not connected to their shells, that are spiked and cover only their backs and not the whole body. Like the very similar Boom Booms, members of this species of Koopa stand upright, and are typically much larger than most types of Koopas upon reaching adulthood. Even as a child, Bowser Jr. is almost as tall as a full-grown Koopa Troopa.[1]. However, Lemmy Koopa is actually almost as small as Toad[2] while his younger brother Larry is bigger in size[3][4], showing that some variability in size exists among Koopas belonging to Bowser's species. These Koopas are known for their strength, sometimes the ability to breathe out flames, and durability, even as children, as well as magical powers; they typically are the leaders of the Koopa race. Unlike Koopa Troopas, Koopas belonging to Bowser's species do not have a beak.

Buzzy Beetle[edit]
BuzzybeetleNSMBU.png
Main article: Buzzy Beetle
Buzzy Beetles are found generally in caves and other dark areas. They are known to be immune to fireballs, and they can climb on walls and ceilings, and they can drop from ceilings if Mario or others approach them closely enough. As with Koopa Troopas, Buzzy Beetles hide inside their shell if Mario or others stomp on them, letting their shells be used.

Other Buzzy Beetle species
Big Buzzy Beetle
Big Bony Beetle
Bony Beetle
Big Bony Beetle
Buster Beetle
Buzz-Bomb
Magmite
Magmus
Noko Bombette
Para-Beetle
Heavy Para-Beetle
Parabuzzy
Spiky Parabuzzy
Spike Top
Dark Spike Top
Mad Mecha-Spike Top
Red Spike Top
Spiky Parabuzzy
Shiny Buzzy Beetle
Small Buzzy Beetle
Stone Buzzy
Dark Stone Buzzy
Chargin' Chuck[edit]

Chargin' Chucks with and without helmets in Super Mario 3D World
Main article: Chargin' Chuck
Chargin' Chucks (sometimes referred to as Koopa Quarterbacks or Koopa Football Players) are a type of Koopa who wear American football gear. They have a variety of attacks and sports based weaponry, such as damaging baseballs and footballs. Chargin' Chucks first appeared in Super Mario World. Like the Hammer Bros. and their variations, Chargin' Chucks often appear as duos, or sometimes even larger groups.

Electro-Koopa[edit]

A blue Electro-Koopa
Electro-Koopas are Koopas found in Super Mario Sunshine. There are three kinds of Electro-Koopas, all of which walk on all fours and have electrical shells which they can throw like boomerangs. From what has been seen in the series so far, Electro-Koopas are native to Isle Delfino.

Electro-Koopa species
Blue Electro-Koopa
Red Electro-Koopa
Green Electro-Koopa
Hammer Bro[edit]
Main article: Hammer Bro
Hammer Bro-NSMBU.png
Hammer Bros. (or Hammer Brothers) are a type of Koopa that stand upright, wear helmets and throw hammers at passerby. There are various similar Koopas who throw other objects at their opponents, such as the Boomerang Bros. and the Fire Bros., the latter of which spits its projectiles from its mouth, instead of pulling them from thin air. All of these Koopas have similar shell patterns, and beaks that are lighter in color than the rest of their face, both of which sets them apart from Koopa Troopas, which are also slightly smaller.

Other Hammer Bro. species
Amazing Flyin' Hammer Brother
Calm Amazing Flyin' Hammer Brother
Boomerang Bro
Boomerang Bro (Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga)
Circus Bro
Dark Boomerang Bro
Goomerang Brother
Shiny Boomerang Bro
Business Bro
Calm Hammer Bro
Chariot Bro
Chomp Bro
Dark Hammer Bro
Fire Bro
Dark Fire Bro
Shiny Fire Bro
Ice Bro
Juggler Bro
Limbo Bro
Shiny Hammer Bro
Sledge Bro
Shady Sledge Bro
Small Hammer Bro
Sumo Bro
Yo Bro
Koopa Troopa[edit]
Main article: Koopa Troopa
MP10KoopaTroopa.png
Koopa Troopas (often shortened to plain Koopas and occasionally to Troopas, Japanese ノコノコ Nokonoko) are common enemies in the Mario series. While some are peaceful, Koopa Troopas are usually displayed as foot soldiers of the Koopa Troop under the direct leadership of Bowser. They are considered to be the archetypal Koopas, as they have no special abilities like Hammer Bros. or Lakitu. Throughout the Mario series, Koopa Troopas have appeared as both quadrupedal creatures (four legged) and bipedal (walking on two legs). Since their debut in Super Mario Bros., Koopa Troopas have appeared in almost every game, usually as enemies, but also as playable characters in numerous spin-offs and the first two Paper Mario games.

Other Koopa Troopa species
Beach Koopa
Big Koopa Troopa
Big Dry Bones
Colossal Koopa Paratroopa
Bombshell Koopa
Climbing Koopa
Dark Koopa
Dry Bones
Big Dry Bones
Dark Bones
Dry Bones (Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga)
Dry Bones Stack
Dull Bones
Dark Dull Bones
Parabones
Red Bones
Sad Dry Bones
Shiny Dry Bones
Vomer
Glad Red Koopa
Kamikaze Koopa
Koopa Paratroopa
Colossal Koopa Paratroopa
Dark Paratroopa
Dreamy Paratroopa
Glad Red Paratroopa
Heavy Troopa
Koopa Paratroopa Stack
KP Paratroopa
Mad Green Paratroopa
Malakoopa
Paratroopea
Scaratroopea
Shady Paratroopa
Shiny Koopa Paratroopa
Tub-O-Troopa
Z Koopa
Parabones
Koopatrol
Dark Koopatrol
Koopa Troopa Stack
KP Koopa
KP Paratroopa
Mad Green Koopa
Mask Koopa
Mural Koopa
Shady Koopa
Shady Paratroopa
Shiny Koopa Troopa
Space Troopa
Spike Koopa
State Troopa
Stormtroopa
Super Koopa
Super Troopa
Robot Monster Troopa
Terrapin
Terra Cotta
Troopea
Elite Troopea
Paratroopea
Scaratroopea
Turtle (Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga)
Wereturtle
Koopeleon[edit]
Main article: Koopeleon
Koopeleons are a rare and unique variant of Koopas that live in the Toadwood Forest in Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time. A Koopeleon resembles a Koopa and chameleon hybrid with a blue shell, green skin, large eyes, and a long curled tail. Koopeleons have the ability to turn invisible, a survival mechanism that allows them to hunt unsuspecting prey. Gold Koopaleons are practically the same thing, but live inside Thwomp Volcano and have an extremely high defense.

Other Koopeleon species
Gold Koopeleon
Lakitu[edit]

A Lakitu as seen in New Super Mario Bros. U
Main article: Lakitu
Lakitus are bespectacled Koopas who ride clouds through the skies, and which can occasionally be found snorkeling in water and hiding behind walls or in pipes. Unlike most Koopa species, they do not have snouts or beaks, but flat faces; their shells are also unique in their circular patterning. To attack, Lakitus typically throw unlimited numbers of Spiny Eggs at their opponents, and some will also dangle 1-Up Mushrooms from fishing poles to lure their targets closer.

Other Lakitu species
Aqua Lakitu
Calm Lakitu
Commander Lakitu
Dark Lakitu
Fishin' Lakitu
Fishin' Boo
Calm Fishin' Boo
Glam Lakitu
Lakipea
Lakitu King
Lakitu R
Lakitu in a Pipe
Lakitufo
Thunder Lakitu
Wall Lakitu
Magikoopa[edit]

A Magikoopa as seen in Super Mario 3D World
Main article: Magikoopa
Magikoopas (referred to as Koopa Wizards in the Super Mario World television series) can cast spells and fly on broomsticks. They are generally considered to be high-ranking members of the Koopa Troop. They wear glasses and wizard's garb: typically blue robes and hats, though Magikoopas specializing in different forms of magic sport different colors. Aside from their heads, which have slightly larger beaks than those of their normal counterparts, little is known about the Magikoopa's external structure due to their robes.

Other Magikoopa species
Dark Magikoopa
Gray Magikoopa
Green Magikoopa
Magifoofa
Purple Magikoopa
Red Magikoopa
Toady
Solo Toady
White Magikoopa
Yellow Magikoopa
Mechakoopa[edit]
NewMechaKoopa.jpg
Main article: Mechakoopa
Mechakoopas are mechanical enemies that bear a slight resemblance to Bowser. They can breathe small fire and walk with a wind-up mechanism. They follow Mario and others, unlike other enemies, and Mario and others stun them by jumping on them. There, Mechakoopas can be held and thrown, but they eventually recover and move again.

Rocky Wrench[edit]

Rocky Wrenches' Koopa-like appearance in Super Mario Bros. 3.
Main article: Rocky Wrench
Rocky Wrenches are enemies and pop out of manhole covers on airships at random. They were initially a type of Koopa during Super Mario Bros. 3,[5][6] but they have been portrayed as a related species of Monty Moles as of New Super Mario Bros. Wii.


Snooze-A-Koopa[edit]
Main article: Snooze-A-Koopa
Snooze-A-Koopa.jpg
Snooze-A-Koopas (also known as Snooza Koopas) are bizarre-looking Koopas encountered by Mario in the game Super Mario Sunshine. Snooze-A-Koopas have flippers instead of hands or feet and walk on all fours; they are also quite large and have a shell with a Yoshi Egg-like pattern on it. They spend much of their time sleeping, but they can be violent when provoked.

Spike[edit]

A Spike in Super Mario 3D World
Main article: Spike
Spikes are small Koopas who either stand still or walk around. When Mario or an ally of his comes by, however, Spikes throw spiked balls to harm the character. More specialized variants, such as Snow Spikes and Stone Spikes, also exist and throw their namesake projectiles instead of metallic, spiked balls.

Other Spike species
Clubba
Dark Clubba
White Clubba
Mad Spike
Shiny Spike
Snow Spike
Stone Spike
Spiny[edit]

A Spiny in New Super Mario Bros. 2
Main article: Spiny
Spinies (Japanese トゲゾー Togezō) are four-legged Koopas known for their spiked shells. They appear to have a symbiotic relationship with Lakitus, another Koopa variant which throw Spiny Eggs at their opponents.

Other Spiny species
Big Spiny
Dark Spiny
Ice Spiny
Sad Spiny
Sharpea
Shiny Spiny
Sky-Blue Spiny
Spike Blop
Spikey
Oerlikon
Spikester
Spiny Egg
Spiny R
Spiny Shroopa
Thorny
Names in other languages[edit]

Language Name Meaning
Japanese クッパ[7]
Kuppa
カメー族[7][8]
Kame-ichizoku
カメ族[9]
Kame-zoku Koopa

Turtle Tribe

Turtle Tribe
French Koopa -
Italian Koopa -
Portuguese Koopa -
Russian Купа
Kupa Koopa
Chinese 慢慢龜
Mànmànguī Slow Tortoise

What does Mario world look like?

 
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 Post subject: Re: Ask a stupid question about Mario and get a stupid answe
PostPosted: Thu Apr 20, 2017 10:19 am 
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A mushroom garden.

Why did you copy the entire text from a Super Mario Wiki article?

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PostPosted: Thu Apr 20, 2017 3:30 pm 
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Because he did.

What is a triagonal?

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PostPosted: Thu Apr 20, 2017 3:49 pm 
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Is Mario part of the Illuminati?

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Who knows? Maybe he might be...



Why does the Pyramid's hands have one in SM64?

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PostPosted: Fri Apr 21, 2017 7:20 pm 
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It's triagonal.

How naive is Mario?

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 22, 2017 2:47 pm 
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That is a good question.

What is Mario?

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Pizza is a yeasted flatbread popularly topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven. It is commonly topped with a selection of meats, vegetables and condiments. The term was first recorded in the 10th century, in a Latin manuscript from Gaeta in Central Italy.[1] The modern pizza was invented in Naples, Italy, and the dish and its variants have since become popular and common in many areas of the world.[2]

In 2009, upon Italy's request, Neapolitan pizza was safeguarded in the European Union as a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed dish.[3][4] The Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana (the True Neapolitan Pizza Association) is a non-profit organization founded in 1984 with headquarters in Naples. It promotes and protects the "true Neapolitan pizza".[5]

Pizza is sold fresh or frozen, either whole or in portions, and is a common fast food item in Europe and North America.[6] Various types of ovens are used to cook them and many varieties exist. Several similar dishes are prepared from ingredients commonly used in pizza preparation, such as calzone and stromboli.

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Preparation
3.1 Cooking
3.2 Crust
3.3 Cheese
4 Varieties
4.1 Italy
4.2 United States
5 Records
6 Health issues
7 National Pizza Month
8 Similar dishes
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links
Etymology
The word "pizza" (Italian: [ˈpittsa]) first appeared in a Latin text from the southern Italy town of Gaeta, then still part of the Byzantine Empire, in 997 AD; the text states that a tenant of certain property is to give the bishop of Gaeta duodecim pizze ("twelve pizzas") every Christmas Day, and another twelve every Easter Sunday".[1][7]

Suggested etymologies include:

Byzantine Greek and Late Latin pitta > pizza, cf. Modern Greek pitta bread and the Apulia and Calabrian (then Byzantine Italy) pitta,[8] a round flat bread baked in the oven at high temperature sometimes with toppings. The word pitta can in turn be traced to either Ancient Greek πικτή (pikte), "fermented pastry", which in Latin became "picta", or Ancient Greek πίσσα (pissa, Attic πίττα, pitta), "pitch",[9][10] or pḗtea, "bran" (pētítēs, "bran bread").[11]
The Lombardic word bizzo or pizzo meaning "mouthful" (related to the English words "bit" and "bite"), which was brought to Italy in the middle of the 6th century AD by the invading Lombards.[1][12]
History
Main article: History of pizza

Pizza Margherita, the archetype of Neapolitan pizza
Foods similar to pizza have been made since the neolithic age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. The ancient Greeks covered their bread with oils, herbs and cheese,[13] and in the 6th century BC, the soldiers in Persian King Darius I's armies baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields.[14][15]

An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid, when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables (Book III). In Book VII, Aeneas and his men are served a meal that includes round cakes (like pita bread) topped with cooked vegetables. When they eat the bread, they realize that these are the "tables" prophesied by Celaeno.[16]

Modern pizza evolved from similar flatbread dishes in Naples, Italy in the 18th or early 19th century.[17] Prior to that time, flatbread was often topped with ingredients such as garlic, salt, lard, cheese, and basil. It is uncertain when tomatoes were first added and there are many conflicting claims.[17] Until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries, and pizzerias keep this old tradition alive today.

A popular contemporary legend holds that the archetypal pizza, pizza Margherita, was invented in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the Neapolitan pizzaiolo (pizza maker) Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honor of the visiting Queen Margherita. Of the three different pizzas he created, the Queen strongly preferred a pizza swathed in the colors of the Italian flag: red (tomato), green (basil), and white (mozzarella). Supposedly, this kind of pizza was then named after the Queen,[18] although recent research casts doubt on this legend.[19]

Pizza was brought to the United States with Italian immigrants in the late nineteenth century,[20] and first appeared in areas where Italian immigrants concentrated. The country's first pizzeria, Lombardi's, opened in 1905.[21] Following World War II, veterans returning from the Italian Campaign after being introduced to Italy's native cuisine proved a ready market for pizza in particular.[22] Since then pizza consumption has exploded in the U.S.[23] Pizza chains such as Domino's, Pizza Hut, and Papa John's, pizzas from take and bake pizzerias, and chilled or frozen pizzas from supermarkets make pizza readily available nationwide. It is so ubiquitous, thirteen percent of the U.S. population consumes pizza on any given day.[24]

Preparation
Pizza is prepared fresh, frozen, and as portion-size slices or pieces. Methods have been developed to overcome challenges such as preventing the sauce from combining with the dough and producing a crust that can be frozen and reheated without becoming rigid. There are frozen pizzas with raw ingredients and self-rising crusts.

Another form of uncooked pizza is available from take and bake pizzerias. This pizza is assembled in the store, then sold to customers to bake in their own ovens. Some grocery stores sell fresh dough along with sauce and basic ingredients, to complete at home before baking in an oven.

Pizza preparation

A wrapped, mass-produced frozen pizza cooked at home


Pizza dough being kneaded. After this, it is typically left undisturbed and allowed time to proof.


Traditional pizza dough being tossed


Various toppings being placed on pan pizzas


An uncooked Neapolitan pizza on a metal peel, ready for the oven
Cooking
In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source, an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants, a wood- or coal-fired brick oven. On deck ovens, pizza can be slid into the oven on a long paddle, called a peel, and baked directly on the hot bricks or baked on a screen (a round metal grate, typically aluminum). Prior to use, a peel may be sprinkled with cornmeal to allow pizza to easily slide onto and off of it.[25] When made at home, it can be baked on a pizza stone in a regular oven to reproduce the effect of a brick oven. Another option is grilled pizza, in which the crust is baked directly on a barbecue grill. Greek pizza, like Chicago-style pizza, is baked in a pan rather than directly on the bricks of the pizza oven.

When it comes to preparation, the dough and ingredients can be combined on any kind of table. With mass production of pizzas the process can be completely automated. Most restaurants still use standard and purpose built pizza preparation tables. Pizzerias nowadays can even opt for hi tech pizza preparation tables that combine mass production elements with traditional techniques.[26]

Pizza cooking

Pizzas bake in a traditional wood-fired brick oven


A pizza baked in a wood-fired oven, being removed with a wooden peel


A cooked pizza served at a pizzeria in New York
Crust

A pizza just removed from an oven, with a close-up view of the cornicione (the outer edge)
The bottom of the pizza, called the "crust", may vary widely according to style—thin as in a typical hand-tossed Neapolitan pizza, or thick as in a deep-dish Chicago-style. It is traditionally plain, but may also be seasoned with garlic or herbs, or stuffed with cheese. The outer edge of the pizza is sometimes referred to as the cornicione.[27] Often pizza dough contains sugar, both to help its yeast rise and enhance browning of the crust.[28]

Cheese
Main article: Pizza cheese
Mozzarella is commonly used on pizza, with the highest quality buffalo mozzarella produced in the surroundings of Naples.[29] Today, other cheeses have been used as pizza ingredients, including provolone, pecorino romano, ricotta, and scamorza. Less expensive processed cheeses or cheese analogues have been developed for mass-market pizzas to produce desirable qualities like browning, melting, stretchiness, consistent fat and moisture content, and stable shelf life. This quest to create the ideal and economical pizza cheese has involved many studies and experiments analyzing the impact of vegetable oil, manufacturing and culture processes, denatured whey proteins and other changes in manufacture. In 1997 it was estimated that annual production of pizza cheese was 1 million tonnes (1,100,000 short tons) in the U.S. and 100,000 tonnes (110,000 short tons) in Europe.[30]

Varieties
Main article: List of pizza varieties by country

A pizza with various toppings from a pizzeria in Romania
Italy
Authentic Neapolitan pizza (pizza napoletana) is typically made with San Marzano tomatoes, grown on the volcanic plains south of Mount Vesuvius, and mozzarella di bufala Campana, made with milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio.[31] This mozzarella is protected with its own European protected designation of origin.[31] Other traditional pizzas include pizza alla marinara, which is topped with marinara sauce and is allegedly the most ancient tomato-topped pizza,[32] pizza capricciosa, which is prepared with mozzarella cheese, baked ham, mushroom, artichoke and tomato,[33] and pizza pugliese, prepared with tomato, mozzarella and onions.[34]


Slices of New York-style pizza
A popular variant of pizza in Italy is Sicilian pizza (locally called sfincione or sfinciuni),[35][36] a thick-crust or deep-dish pizza originating during the 17th century in Sicily: it is essentially a focaccia that is typically topped with tomato sauce and other ingredients. Until the 1860s, sfincione was the type of pizza usually consumed in Sicily, especially in the Western portion of the island.[37] Other variations of pizzas are also found in other regions of Italy, for example pizza al padellino or pizza al tegamino, a small-sized, thick-crust and deep-dish pizza typically served in Turin, Piedmont.[38][39][40]

United States
Main article: Pizza in the United States
Common toppings for pizza in the United States include ground beef, mushrooms, onions, pepperoni, pineapple, garlic, chicken, bacon, ham and sausage. Distinct regional types developed in the twentieth century, including California, Chicago, Greek, and New York styles.[23] The first pizzeria in the U.S. was opened in New York's Little Italy in 1905[41] and since then regions throughout the U.S. offer variations, including deep-dish, stuffed, pockets, turnovers, rolled and pizza-on-a-stick, each with seemingly limitless combinations of sauce and toppings.

Another variation is grilled pizza, created by taking a fairly thin, round (more typically, irregularly shaped) sheet of yeasted pizza dough, placing it directly over the fire of a grill and then turning it over once the bottom has baked and placing a thin layer of toppings on the baked side.[42] Toppings may be sliced thin to ensure that they heat through, and chunkier toppings such as sausage or peppers may be precooked before being placed on the pizza.[43] Garlic, herbs, or other ingredients are sometimes added to the pizza or the crust to maximize the flavor of the dish.[44]

Grilled pizza was offered in the United States at the Al Forno restaurant in Providence, Rhode Island[45] by owners Johanne Killeen and George Germon in 1980.[citation needed] Although it was inspired by a misunderstanding that confused a wood-fired brick oven with a grill,[citation needed] grilled pizza did exist prior to 1980, both in Italy, and in Argentina where it is known as pizza a la parrilla.[46] It has become a popular cookout dish, and there are even some pizza restaurants that specialize in the style. The traditional style of grilled pizza employed at Al Forno restaurant uses a dough coated with olive oil,[45] strained tomato sauce, thin slices of fresh mozzarella, and a garnish made from shaved scallions, and is served uncut.[47] The final product can be likened to flatbread with pizza toppings.[45] Another Providence establishment, Bob & Timmy's Grilled Pizza, was featured in a Providence-themed episode of the Travel Channel's Man v. Food Nation in 2011.[48]

Records
The world's largest pizza was prepared in Rome in December 2012, and measured 1,261 square metres (13,570 sq ft). The pizza was named "Ottavia" in homage to the first Roman emperor Octavian Augustus, and was made with a gluten-free base.[49] The world's longest pizza was made in Naples in 2016. It was baked using a series of wheeled ovens which moved along its length, and measured 1.85 kilometres (1.15 mi).[50]

The world's most expensive pizza listed by Guinness World Records is a commercially available thin-crust pizza at Maze restaurant in London, United Kingdom, which costs GB£100. The pizza is wood fire-baked, and is topped with onion puree, white truffle paste, fontina cheese, baby mozzarella, pancetta, cep mushrooms, freshly picked wild mizuna lettuce, and fresh shavings of a rare Italian white truffle.[51]

There are several instances of more expensive pizzas, such as the GB£4,200 "Pizza Royale 007" at Haggis restaurant in Glasgow, Scotland, which has caviar, lobster and is topped with 24-carat gold dust, and the US$1,000 caviar pizza made by Nino's Bellissima pizzeria in New York City, New York.[52][53] However, these are not officially recognized by Guinness World Records. Additionally, a pizza was made by the restaurateur Domenico Crolla that included toppings such as sunblush-tomato sauce, Scottish smoked salmon, medallions of venison, edible gold, lobster marinated in cognac, and champagne-soaked caviar. The pizza was auctioned for charity in 2007, raising GB£2,150.[54]

Health issues

A vegetarian pizza
Some mass-produced pizzas by fast food chains have been criticized as having an unhealthy balance of ingredients. Pizza can be high in salt, fat and food energy. The USDA reports an average sodium content of 5,101 mg per 14 in (36 cm) pizza in fast food chains.[55] There are concerns about negative health effects.[56] Food chains have come under criticism at various times for the high salt content of some of their meals.[57]

Frequent pizza eaters in Italy have been found to have a relatively low incidence of cardiovascular disease[58] and digestive tract cancers[59] relative to infrequent pizza eaters, although the nature of the correlation between pizza and such perceived benefits is unclear. Pizza consumption in Italy might only indicate adherence to traditional Mediterranean dietary patterns, which have been shown to have various health benefits.[59]

Some attribute the apparent health benefits of pizza to the lycopene content in pizza sauce,[60] which research indicates likely plays a role in protecting against cardiovascular disease and various cancers.[61]

National Pizza Month
See also: National Pizza Month
National Pizza Month is an annual observance that occurs for the month of October in the United States and some areas of Canada.[62][63][64][65] This observance began in October 1984, and was created by Gerry Durnell, the publisher of Pizza Today magazine.[65] During this time, some people observe National Pizza Month by consuming various types of pizzas or pizza slices, or going to various pizzerias.[62]

Similar dishes

A halved calzone

A tarte flambée
Calzone and stromboli are similar dishes (a calzone is traditionally half-moon-shaped, while a stromboli is tube-shaped) that are often made of pizza dough rolled or folded around a filling.
"Farinata" or "cecina".[66] A Ligurian (farinata) and Tuscan (cecina) regional dish made from chickpea flour, water, salt and olive oil. Also called socca in the Provence region of France. Often baked in a brick oven, and typically weighed and sold by the slice.
The Alsatian Flammekueche[67] (Standard German: Flammkuchen, French: Tarte flambée) is a thin disc of dough covered in crème fraîche, onions, and bacon.
Garlic fingers is an Atlantic Canadian dish, similar to a pizza in shape and size, and made with similar dough. It is garnished with melted butter, garlic, cheese, and sometimes bacon.
The Anatolian Lahmajoun (Arabic: laḥm bi'ajīn; Armenian: lahmajoun; also Armenian pizza or Turkish pizza) is a meat-topped dough round. The bread is very thin; the layer of meat often includes chopped vegetables.[68]
The Levantine Manakish (Arabic: ma'ujnāt) and Sfiha (Arabic: laḥm bi'ajīn; also Arab pizza) are dishes similar to pizza.
The Macedonian Pastrmajlija is a bread pie made from dough and meat. It is usually oval-shaped with chopped meat on top of it.
The Provençal Pissaladière is similar to an Italian pizza, with a slightly thicker crust and a topping of cooked onions, anchovies, and olives.
Pizza bagel is a bagel with toppings similar to that of traditional pizzas
Pizza bread is a type of sandwich that is often served open-faced which consists of bread, pizza or tomato sauce, cheese[69] and various toppings. Homemade versions may be prepared.
Pizza sticks may be prepared with pizza dough and pizza ingredients, in which the dough is shaped into stick forms, sauce and toppings are added, and it is then baked.[70] Bread dough may also be used in their preparation,[71] and some versions are fried.[72]
Pizza Rolls are a frozen snack variation of traditional pizza that can include various toppings. Homemade versions may be prepared as well.
Okonomiyaki, a Japanese dish cooked on a hotplate, is often referred to as "Japanese pizza".[73]
"Zanzibar pizza" is a street food served in Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania. It uses a dough much thinner than pizza dough, almost like phyllo dough, filled with minced beef, onions, and an egg, similar to Moroccan bestila.[74]
See also
icon Food portal
Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba
List of baked goods
List of Italian dishes
List of pizza chains
List of pizza varieties by country
Matzah pizza
Italian cuisine
Pizza cake
Pizza cheese
Pizza delivery
Pizza farm
Pizza saver
Pizza strips
Pizza theorem
Sicilian pizza

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